Like in any management process, it is important to tackle results. This step involves understanding the scope of brand marketing programmes, i.e. to measure and interpret brand performance (brand tracking).
This is done by implementing a measurement system that can include:
Brand value chain “a means to trace the value creation process for brands to better understand the financial impact of brand marketing expenditures and investments.” (Keller & Brexendorf, 2016).
There are several examples of brand value methodologies, here are two other examples: